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Eating food raises blood-sugar levels. Finding a balance between the food you eat and exercise and medication helps keep diabetes under good control.

The food we eat is made of six components: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. Carbohydrate, protein and fat provide calories, while vitamins, minerals and water do not. All food with calories affect the blood sugar. Carbohydrates are a source of energy for the body. Carbohydrates affect blood sugar the quickest and to a much greater extent than protein or fat. For this reason, it is important that people with diabetes eat a moderate and consistent amount of carbohydrates. Balancing your carbohydrates can help your blood sugar from going too high or too low. Protein affects the blood sugar less than carbohydrates. Our bodies need protein for maintaining tissues and muscles. What protein is not used for these processes, the body can convert to glucose or fat. Fat has the slowest, but most long-term, effect on the blood sugar. Because it is slowly digested, eating too much fat can raise the blood sugar over a longer period of time, and is not good for the heart. Carbohydrate, protein and fat are all essential parts of a healthy diet. The key is eating a moderate amount of each.


Calories per Gram Food Sources Blood-sugar Effect
Carbohydrate 4 Sugars (added, fruit, milk) and starches Most
Protein 4 Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs Moderate
Fat 9 Butter, oil, nuts Least