Type 1 Diabetes
In this type of diabetes, the pancreas no longer produces insulin thereby causing glucose (sugar) to build up in the blood. People with Type 1 diabetes must take insulin either by injections or through an insulin delivery system such an insulin pump. The treatment also includes a balanced carbohydrate, low-fat, low-sodium meal plan and regular exercise. This type of diabetes is less common, an estimated 500,000 to a million Americans have this type of diabetes. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease which usually occurs in children and young adults. It often appears suddenly and the symptoms, which mimic the flu, can be severe
Signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes:
- Increased thirst;
- Frequent urination or bed wetting in children;
- Increased hunger;
- Extreme weight loss;
- Lack of energy, being tired and weak;
- Feeling edgy and having mood changes;
- Feeling sick to your stomach and / or vomiting;
- High levels of sugar in the blood and urine.
Although what causes diabetes is unknown, people inherit a tendency to get diabetes. But not everyone with this tendency will get the disease. Type 1 diabtes is more common in youth but it can occur at any age.
Who is at risk for Type 1 diabetes?
- Brothers or sisters of people with Type 1 diabetes have a 10 percent chance of developing the disease before the age of 50;
- Children of parents with Type 1.
Type 2 Diabetes
This is the most common form of diabetes; it affects about 20 million Americans. It is a metabolic disorder that usually begins after the age of 40, although it can occur at any age. The chances of developing Type 2 increase with age. In this type of diabetes, the body either does not make enough insulin or is not able to use the insulin properly. Without enough insulin, the body cannot move blood sugar into the cells and it builds up in the bloodstream. High levels of blood sugar (also called blood glucose) can cause problems. Type 2 begins gradually. Symptoms may not be felt for several years and can be mild.
Some people may ignore or confuse these symptoms with signs of aging and not go to their health-care practitioner. Estimates vary, but in the United States, one-third to one-half of those with diabetes is not aware they have the disease (in Ohio, one-half are undiagnosed).
Signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes:
The symptoms of Type 2 include any of Type 1 symptoms plus
- Blurred vision;
- bladder infections;
- Wounds being slow to heal.
Obesity is often a factor in Type 2 diabetes, although it is not the only cause of the disease. The treatment includes a balanced carbohydrate, low-fat, low-sodium meal plan and regular exercise. Oral medication or insulin may also be needed.
Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes:
- Family history;
- Being over the age of 40;
- Being overweight;
- Not exercising regularly;
- Certain racial and ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, Pacific Islanders and Native Americans);
- Gestational diabetes or having a baby weighing more than 9 pounds at birth.
- Having low HDL (or "good") cholesterol or high triglycerides (blood fats);
Pregnant women who've never had diabetes before, but have high blood-sugar levels during pregnancy, have gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes affects about 100,000 pregnant women a year in the United States - about 2 to 5 percent of all pregnancies. It's advised that all pregnant women be tested for high blood sugar (also called hyperglycemia) in the sixth month of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. But once you've had gestational diabetes, your chances are greater it will return in future pregnancies. There is also a link between gestational diabetes and developing Type 2 years later. Certain basic lifestyle changes may help prolong the onset of diabetes such as maintaining a healthy body weight, eating a well-balanced diet and regular exercise.
A small percentage of diabetes results from specific genetic syndromes, surgery, drugs, malnutrition, infections and other illnesses.